Quantifying Racial Segregation by State and City

I look to a day when people will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.

Martin Luther King Jr.

One of the disappointing aspects of race discussions in the media today, is that they predominantly focus on anecdotes and sensational examples. Stories are wonderful at illustrating truths, but are a horrible way of proving them. Is there a more quantifiable way of evaluating race relations in America today?

One objective metric that comes to mind, is rates of interracial marriage, normalized by society’s level of diversity. This single metric encompasses a wealth of different information – including housing/education/career segregation, societal attitudes towards embracing diversity, and close social ties that bridge racial divides. And most conveniently, interracial marriages and their resulting children are explicitly surveyed by a number of sources, such as the US Census. This makes it far easier to quantify them, as compared to more nebulous signals such as “friendships” and “social circles”.

One major disclaimer – it is certainly not my intention to embarrass anyone who is married to a partner of the same race. Indeed, the vast majority of people, regardless of race, marry someone of the same race. Often purely by coincidence. And other times because of people’s understandable desire to be with someone who shares their culture and world view – something often mentioned by people of color as well. The goal of this study is not to “call out” any individuals, but simply to examine wider societal trends.

Methodology

The best data source I could find was the US Census – specifically the American Community Survey. This survey provides racial demographic information, broken down by state and city. Unfortunately it doesn’t explicitly give us statistics for interracial marriage. But it does give us a different statistic which we can use as a proxy – the percentage of people who are biracial, broken down by each race-combination.

To be sure, this is a flawed proxy. Not all couples have the same number of children. Not to mention that the percentage of biracial individuals, is a lagging indicator of today’s rate of interracial marriages. These drawbacks make it very hard to use the metrics below in any absolute sense. But they are still of great value when used in a relative context.

The methodology we use to quantify racial integration is simple. In a world of complete racial integration, if X% of society is Black, then each person would have a X% likelihood of marrying someone who is Black. This implies that in a society that is:
– X% White,
– Y% Black, 
we would expect 2*X*Y/100 % of individuals in the subsequent generation to be White-Black biracial.

Given the above, we can then score each society’s level of integration by computing the actual:expected biracial population ratio.

For example, in a hypothetical colorblind society consisting of 90 White and 10 Black citizens, each person would have a 10% chance of marrying a Black person. This implies that of the resulting 50 marriages, 9 of them (ie, 18%) would be White-Black. We would then expect 18% of children in the following generation to be White-Black biracial. If the actual biracial demographic is 1%, our racial integration score would be 1/18 ~= 0.055 ~= 5.5%

The above methodology has been coded into a software application, which parses the Census data and computes all the scores. Both the code and the dataset can be found here, and is readily available for you to modify and/or run directly.

Limitations

The above methodology has many weaknesses of course. Chief among them, it doesn’t take into account age. Ideally, we would be looking only at the 20-40 demographic, in order to best estimate the expected fraction of interracial marriages. And we should also be looking only at the 0-10 demographic, in order to estimate the actual fraction of recent marriages that are interracial. Or even better, we should be measuring directly the fraction of recent marriages that are interracial, without having to rely on any other proxy. In the absence of more precise data, we are forced to make do with the above approximations instead.

More fundamentally, in order to truly quantify segregation, we should be looking at all social ties – not just marriages. It is possible for an African-American couple to be perfectly integrated into society, with friends, neighbors and colleagues of all backgrounds, and this methodology fails to capture that.

Lastly, this study uses marriage as a proxy for social integration. But arguably, we should be looking at other measures such as wellbeing, societal attitudes, and levels of discrimination experienced. Just because someone is in an interracial marriage, does not mean that they feel comfortable and welcomed by the wider society around them. And the converse is true as well.

Given the above limitations, this study should definitely be supplemented with other studies that explore this topic from different angles. The absolute scores computed are of minimal use on their own. But when used in a relative manner to compare different communities, it gives us some very objective, quantifiable and data-driven insights.

White-Black Integration by State

[    Mississippi] score:  1.6, white: 58.1, black: 38.0, mixed: 0.7, expected: 44.2
[        Alabama] score:  1.7, white: 67.7, black: 26.7, mixed: 0.6, expected: 36.2
[      Louisiana] score:  2.0, white: 61.7, black: 32.4, mixed: 0.8, expected: 40.0
[ South Carolina] score:  2.8, white: 67.0, black: 26.6, mixed: 1.0, expected: 35.6
[        Georgia] score:  3.0, white: 58.3, black: 31.6, mixed: 1.1, expected: 36.8
[       Arkansas] score:  3.4, white: 76.5, black: 15.2, mixed: 0.8, expected: 23.3
[       Maryland] score:  3.7, white: 54.7, black: 30.0, mixed: 1.2, expected: 32.8
[ North Carolina] score:  3.8, white: 68.4, black: 21.4, mixed: 1.1, expected: 29.3
[      Tennessee] score:  3.9, white: 77.3, black: 16.8, mixed: 1.0, expected: 26.0
[          Texas] score:  3.9, white: 73.5, black: 12.3, mixed: 0.7, expected: 18.1
[       Delaware] score:  3.9, white: 68.2, black: 22.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 30.7
[       Illinois] score:  4.5, white: 71.7, black: 14.1, mixed: 0.9, expected: 20.2
[        Florida] score:  4.6, white: 74.6, black: 16.0, mixed: 1.1, expected: 23.9
[     New Jersey] score:  4.9, white: 66.9, black: 13.6, mixed: 0.9, expected: 18.2
[       New York] score:  5.0, white: 63.3, black: 15.7, mixed: 1.0, expected: 19.9
[       Michigan] score:  5.1, white: 78.3, black: 13.8, mixed: 1.1, expected: 21.6
[       Virginia] score:  5.4, white: 67.4, black: 19.2, mixed: 1.4, expected: 25.9
-------- [United States] score:  5.5, white: 72.2, black: 12.7, mixed: 1.0, expected: 18.3 -------
[       Missouri] score:  6.3, white: 82.2, black: 11.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 18.9
[   Pennsylvania] score:  6.7, white: 80.1, black: 11.2, mixed: 1.2, expected: 17.9
[   North Dakota] score:  6.9, white: 85.7, black:  3.4, mixed: 0.4, expected:  5.8
[        Indiana] score:  7.6, white: 82.8, black:  9.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 15.7
[    Connecticut] score:  7.9, white: 75.2, black: 11.0, mixed: 1.3, expected: 16.5
[           Ohio] score:  8.0, white: 81.0, black: 12.4, mixed: 1.6, expected: 20.1
[       Kentucky] score:  8.8, white: 86.7, black:  7.9, mixed: 1.2, expected: 13.7
[      Wisconsin] score:  9.2, white: 85.3, black:  6.4, mixed: 1.0, expected: 10.9
[      Minnesota] score:  9.2, white: 82.5, black:  6.6, mixed: 1.0, expected: 10.9
[         Nevada] score:  9.4, white: 63.4, black:  9.2, mixed: 1.1, expected: 11.7
[       Oklahoma] score:  9.5, white: 72.2, black:  7.3, mixed: 1.0, expected: 10.5
[       Nebraska] score:  9.9, white: 86.4, black:  4.7, mixed: 0.8, expected:  8.1
[     California] score: 10.1, white: 59.5, black:  5.8, mixed: 0.7, expected:  6.9
[   Rhode Island] score: 10.2, white: 80.7, black:  6.7, mixed: 1.1, expected: 10.8
[  Massachusetts] score: 11.6, white: 77.3, black:  7.8, mixed: 1.4, expected: 12.1
[         Kansas] score: 12.1, white: 84.0, black:  5.9, mixed: 1.2, expected:  9.9
[        Arizona] score: 12.3, white: 78.0, black:  4.7, mixed: 0.9, expected:  7.3
[       Colorado] score: 12.7, white: 84.1, black:  4.2, mixed: 0.9, expected:  7.1
[     New Mexico] score: 14.9, white: 76.4, black:  2.2, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.4
[           Iowa] score: 15.4, white: 90.2, black:  3.6, mixed: 1.0, expected:  6.5
[  West Virginia] score: 15.6, white: 93.0, black:  3.8, mixed: 1.1, expected:  7.1
[         Alaska] score: 16.0, white: 64.4, black:  3.4, mixed: 0.7, expected:  4.4
[        Vermont] score: 17.7, white: 94.1, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.3
[           Utah] score: 18.0, white: 85.7, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.2
[     Washington] score: 18.9, white: 74.8, black:  3.9, mixed: 1.1, expected:  5.8
[          Maine] score: 18.9, white: 94.3, black:  1.4, mixed: 0.5, expected:  2.6
[   South Dakota] score: 18.9, white: 84.0, black:  2.2, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.7
[         Oregon] score: 20.9, white: 83.9, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.4
[  New Hampshire] score: 22.3, white: 92.4, black:  1.7, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.1
[    Puerto Rico] score: 25.8, white: 65.1, black: 12.5, mixed: 4.2, expected: 16.3
[         Hawaii] score: 41.2, white: 24.3, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  1.0

To be honest, I was shocked by how much the states differed from one another. When looking at the states with the lowest scores, we see extremely low levels of interracial marriage. A mere 0.7% of people in Mississippi identify as White-Black biracial. Despite the fact that 58% of Mississippi is White and 38% is Black. In contrast, New Hampshire has the exact same biracial demographic, despite the fact that less than 2% of people in New Hampshire are Black.

Looking at the states with the lowest scores, it seems to validate commonly held beliefs about the South. Of the 11 states with the lowest scores, every single one is a Southern state. States like Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana have some of the highest Black demographic in the country – but some of the smallest White-Black biracial demographic.

Of little surprise, the state that is most integrated, is Hawaii. The same state where Barack Obama grew up. And the same state which many say is closest to being post-racial.

But the other results do hold quite a few surprises. Many states commonly thought to be progressive and diverse – New York, New Jersey, Illinois – are actually below-average. And California – commonly thought to be the most liberal and diverse state of all – is not even in the top-15. When looking at the states with the highest scores, what we actually see are the states that no one talks about. New Hampshire, Oregon, South Dakota, Maine, Washington, Utah, Vermont – these are the states with the highest scores in the mainland. Oregon, for example, has 1 White-Black biracial person for every 3 Black people in the state.

Looking closer, the reason becomes clear. There seems to be a strong relationship between diversity and segregation. Ie, the more diverse a state is, the more segregated it is as well. Except for Puerto Rico, the highest scoring states all have extremely small Black demographics – less than 4%.

The US as a whole has a 12.7% Black demographic. Every single state with an above-average score, has a smaller Black demographic. And except for Texas (which has a surprisingly low score), every state with a below-average score, has a larger Black demographic.

It is worth noting though, that the above isn’t a universal rule. Texas has twice the Black demographic as Delaware, but still scores lower. And Ohio has a four times larger Black demographic than North Dakota, but still scores higher.

On the face of it, this contradicts prevalent assumptions that more diversity is associated with less racism. The above data implies that greater diversity is actually associated with more segregation.

There are many possible explanations for this. One possible explanation is amicable self-segregation. People of color often report a preference for socializing with (and especially marrying) someone of similar background. If true, this means that when given the opportunity, people of color are more likely to socialize with (and marry) someone of the same race. However, when living in communities where almost everyone is White, they would be forced to integrate into wider society.

An alternative, and less innocuous, explanation is the Racial Threat Theory – when living in a more diverse society, the dominant group is more likely to feel threatened, and to engage in prejudicial behavior.

Racial threat theory proposes that a higher population of members of a minority race results in the dominant race imposing higher levels of social control on the subordinate race, which, according to this hypothesis, occurs as a result of the dominant race fearing the subordinate race’s political, economic, or criminal threat. Political scientist V. O. Key found that white voters in the U.S. South turned out at higher rates and voted more for conservative politicians in areas with high levels of African-Americans; Kety argued that whites felt threatened by African-Americans, thus becoming more politically motivated.

Research has shown a strong association between the size of a state’s nonwhite prison population and the likelihood of that state enacting a felon disenfranchisement law, which supports a link between racial threat and the passage of such laws.

A 2016 study by Harvard University political scientist Ryan Enos, which relied on a quasi-experimental design, found that when public housing projects in Chicago were removed over the period 2000-2004, turnout among white voters decreased substantially and white voters were less likely to vote for conservatives.

Further research is needed to determine which of the above best explains the segregation seen in states that are very diverse.

White-Black Integration by City

It is commonly thought that cities, by virtue of their progressive populace, are more racially integrated than suburbs and rural areas. This may even explain why states like New York and Illinois have particularly low scores, despite the reputation of their flagship cities. Does our data validate this hypothesis?

[                           Roanoke Rapids, NC] score:  0.5, white: 37.8, black: 54.4, mixed: 0.2, expected: 41.1
[                    Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL] score:  0.6, white: 86.1, black:  9.4, mixed: 0.1, expected: 16.2
[                                  Jackson, MS] score:  0.8, white: 47.5, black: 49.7, mixed: 0.4, expected: 47.2
[                               Tuscaloosa, AL] score:  0.9, white: 62.8, black: 34.2, mixed: 0.4, expected: 43.0
[                                   Mobile, AL] score:  1.0, white: 57.9, black: 36.3, mixed: 0.4, expected: 42.0
[             Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville, AL] score:  1.2, white: 74.4, black: 21.6, mixed: 0.4, expected: 32.1
[                   Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL] score:  1.4, white: 83.9, black: 12.9, mixed: 0.3, expected: 21.6
[                                Lumberton, NC] score:  1.5, white: 27.4, black: 24.1, mixed: 0.2, expected: 13.2
[                           Auburn-Opelika, AL] score:  1.5, white: 70.2, black: 23.4, mixed: 0.5, expected: 32.9
[                                Goldsboro, NC] score:  1.5, white: 64.2, black: 30.5, mixed: 0.6, expected: 39.2
[                                  Mississippi] score:  1.6, white: 58.1, black: 38.0, mixed: 0.7, expected: 44.2
[                  Shreveport-Bossier City, LA] score:  1.6, white: 55.2, black: 39.8, mixed: 0.7, expected: 43.9
[                                      Alabama] score:  1.7, white: 67.7, black: 26.7, mixed: 0.6, expected: 36.2
[                           Corpus Christi, TX] score:  1.7, white: 91.0, black:  3.3, mixed: 0.1, expected:  6.0
[                     New Orleans-Metairie, LA] score:  1.7, white: 57.1, black: 35.3, mixed: 0.7, expected: 40.3
[                               Montgomery, AL] score:  1.8, white: 49.2, black: 45.1, mixed: 0.8, expected: 44.4
[                     Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX] score:  1.8, white: 69.4, black: 23.9, mixed: 0.6, expected: 33.2
[                              Rocky Mount, NC] score:  1.8, white: 47.3, black: 46.2, mixed: 0.8, expected: 43.7
[                        Birmingham-Hoover, AL] score:  1.9, white: 65.9, black: 28.4, mixed: 0.7, expected: 37.4
[                                  Decatur, AL] score:  1.9, white: 76.9, black: 13.9, mixed: 0.4, expected: 21.4
[                                 Fargo, ND-MN] score:  1.9, white: 87.1, black:  6.1, mixed: 0.2, expected: 10.6
[                                 New Bern, NC] score:  1.9, white: 71.3, black: 22.2, mixed: 0.6, expected: 31.7
[                                   Dothan, AL] score:  1.9, white: 72.6, black: 25.0, mixed: 0.7, expected: 36.3
[                              Baton Rouge, LA] score:  1.9, white: 58.5, black: 35.2, mixed: 0.8, expected: 41.2
[                                  Trenton, NJ] score:  2.0, white: 61.4, black: 20.5, mixed: 0.5, expected: 25.2
[                                    Louisiana] score:  2.0, white: 61.7, black: 32.4, mixed: 0.8, expected: 40.0
[                                 Florence, SC] score:  2.0, white: 53.6, black: 41.9, mixed: 0.9, expected: 44.9
[                              Tallahassee, FL] score:  2.0, white: 60.5, black: 32.9, mixed: 0.8, expected: 39.8
[                            Memphis, TN-MS-AR] score:  2.0, white: 46.5, black: 47.3, mixed: 0.9, expected: 44.0
[                                  Saginaw, MI] score:  2.1, white: 75.3, black: 19.1, mixed: 0.6, expected: 28.8
[                                 Longview, TX] score:  2.2, white: 78.9, black: 17.5, mixed: 0.6, expected: 27.6
[            Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island, FL] score:  2.5, white: 88.4, black:  6.9, mixed: 0.3, expected: 12.2
[                                 Valdosta, GA] score:  2.5, white: 58.8, black: 34.2, mixed: 1.0, expected: 40.2
[                                Lafayette, LA] score:  2.5, white: 70.7, black: 25.4, mixed: 0.9, expected: 35.9
[                               Burlington, NC] score:  2.6, white: 69.2, black: 19.7, mixed: 0.7, expected: 27.3
[                  Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI] score:  2.6, white: 69.2, black: 22.3, mixed: 0.8, expected: 30.9
[              Charleston-North Charleston, SC] score:  2.6, white: 67.7, black: 25.5, mixed: 0.9, expected: 34.5
[                               Huntsville, AL] score:  2.6, white: 69.3, black: 22.1, mixed: 0.8, expected: 30.6
[                               Alexandria, LA] score:  2.6, white: 65.5, black: 28.9, mixed: 1.0, expected: 37.9
[                               Wilmington, NC] score:  2.6, white: 80.4, black: 14.1, mixed: 0.6, expected: 22.7
[                    Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL] score:  2.7, white: 83.8, black:  9.0, mixed: 0.4, expected: 15.1
[                             Texarkana, TX-AR] score:  2.7, white: 69.0, black: 24.5, mixed: 0.9, expected: 33.8
[         Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX] score:  2.7, white: 63.8, black: 17.4, mixed: 0.6, expected: 22.2
[                               Greenville, NC] score:  2.8, white: 57.5, black: 34.7, mixed: 1.1, expected: 39.9
[     Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC] score:  2.8, white: 71.4, black: 20.3, mixed: 0.8, expected: 29.0
[            Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA] score:  2.8, white: 52.8, black: 34.3, mixed: 1.0, expected: 36.2
[                               South Carolina] score:  2.8, white: 67.0, black: 26.6, mixed: 1.0, expected: 35.6
[                             Lake Charles, LA] score:  2.9, white: 70.8, black: 24.6, mixed: 1.0, expected: 34.8
[                            Winston-Salem, NC] score:  2.9, white: 75.0, black: 18.3, mixed: 0.8, expected: 27.4
[                              Spartanburg, SC] score:  2.9, white: 72.6, black: 21.2, mixed: 0.9, expected: 30.8
[                             Salisbury, MD-DE] score:  3.0, white: 76.5, black: 17.7, mixed: 0.8, expected: 27.1
[                     Faribault-Northfield, MN] score:  3.0, white: 85.9, black:  5.9, mixed: 0.3, expected: 10.1
[                                     Waco, TX] score:  3.0, white: 79.6, black: 14.8, mixed: 0.7, expected: 23.6
[                                      Georgia] score:  3.0, white: 58.3, black: 31.6, mixed: 1.1, expected: 36.8
[    Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL] score:  3.1, white: 69.4, black: 21.1, mixed: 0.9, expected: 29.3
[                       Durham-Chapel Hill, NC] score:  3.1, white: 62.7, black: 25.9, mixed: 1.0, expected: 32.5
[                     Athens-Clarke County, GA] score:  3.1, white: 72.5, black: 20.1, mixed: 0.9, expected: 29.1
[                                 Savannah, GA] score:  3.1, white: 59.2, black: 32.8, mixed: 1.2, expected: 38.8
[               Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC] score:  3.1, white: 58.1, black: 35.9, mixed: 1.3, expected: 41.7
[                        Macon-Bibb County, GA] score:  3.2, white: 51.6, black: 42.7, mixed: 1.4, expected: 44.1
[                                   Albany, GA] score:  3.2, white: 40.7, black: 53.9, mixed: 1.4, expected: 43.9
[Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC] score:  3.3, white: 83.1, black: 12.6, mixed: 0.7, expected: 20.9
[                                     Arkansas] score:  3.4, white: 76.5, black: 15.2, mixed: 0.8, expected: 23.3
[                                 Columbia, SC] score:  3.6, white: 59.4, black: 33.0, mixed: 1.4, expected: 39.2
[                                 Richmond, VA] score:  3.6, white: 61.4, black: 29.5, mixed: 1.3, expected: 36.2
[                    Greensboro-High Point, NC] score:  3.6, white: 62.5, black: 26.6, mixed: 1.2, expected: 33.3
[               Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, MS] score:  3.6, white: 70.8, black: 21.5, mixed: 1.1, expected: 30.4
[     Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR] score:  3.6, white: 70.0, black: 23.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 32.9
[                                     Maryland] score:  3.7, white: 54.7, black: 30.0, mixed: 1.2, expected: 32.8
[            Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC] score:  3.7, white: 66.5, black: 22.5, mixed: 1.1, expected: 29.9
[           Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI] score:  3.7, white: 66.0, black: 16.4, mixed: 0.8, expected: 21.6
[              Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX] score:  3.7, white: 67.7, black: 15.9, mixed: 0.8, expected: 21.5
[                             Jacksonville, FL] score:  3.7, white: 69.2, black: 21.2, mixed: 1.1, expected: 29.3
[                Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD] score:  3.8, white: 59.3, black: 29.2, mixed: 1.3, expected: 34.6
[                               North Carolina] score:  3.8, white: 68.4, black: 21.4, mixed: 1.1, expected: 29.3
[                          Charlottesville, VA] score:  3.8, white: 78.2, black: 13.6, mixed: 0.8, expected: 21.3
[                                    Tennessee] score:  3.9, white: 77.3, black: 16.8, mixed: 1.0, expected: 26.0
[                                        Texas] score:  3.9, white: 73.5, black: 12.3, mixed: 0.7, expected: 18.1
[                                     Delaware] score:  3.9, white: 68.2, black: 22.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 30.7
[  Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD] score:  4.0, white: 65.8, black: 21.1, mixed: 1.1, expected: 27.8
[       Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL] score:  4.0, white: 80.9, black: 10.9, mixed: 0.7, expected: 17.6
[                                  Concord, NH] score:  4.1, white: 94.3, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.1, expected:  2.5
[                      Staunton-Waynesboro, VA] score:  4.1, white: 88.3, black:  8.2, mixed: 0.6, expected: 14.5
[                                  Raleigh, NC] score:  4.2, white: 66.1, black: 19.9, mixed: 1.1, expected: 26.3
[                                    Tyler, TX] score:  4.2, white: 76.6, black: 17.0, mixed: 1.1, expected: 26.0
[                                Lynchburg, VA] score:  4.2, white: 77.6, black: 16.7, mixed: 1.1, expected: 25.9
[                                St. Cloud, MN] score:  4.3, white: 87.7, black:  6.7, mixed: 0.5, expected: 11.8
[Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN] score:  4.3, white: 76.9, black: 15.2, mixed: 1.0, expected: 23.4
[                          Barnstable Town, MA] score:  4.3, white: 91.5, black:  3.8, mixed: 0.3, expected:  7.0
[                             St. Louis, MO-IL] score:  4.4, white: 75.7, black: 18.2, mixed: 1.2, expected: 27.6
[                                     Illinois] score:  4.5, white: 71.7, black: 14.1, mixed: 0.9, expected: 20.2
[        New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA] score:  4.6, white: 57.7, black: 17.1, mixed: 0.9, expected: 19.7
[                         East Stroudsburg, PA] score:  4.6, white: 75.7, black: 15.9, mixed: 1.1, expected: 24.1
[                                      Florida] score:  4.6, white: 74.6, black: 16.0, mixed: 1.1, expected: 23.9
[            Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI] score:  4.7, white: 71.8, black: 16.4, mixed: 1.1, expected: 23.6
[   Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC] score:  4.8, white: 58.4, black: 30.6, mixed: 1.7, expected: 35.7
[                                  Midland, TX] score:  4.8, white: 82.9, black:  7.6, mixed: 0.6, expected: 12.6
[                              Chillicothe, OH] score:  4.8, white: 90.3, black:  5.8, mixed: 0.5, expected: 10.5
[                           Clarksville, TN-KY] score:  4.8, white: 70.2, black: 20.7, mixed: 1.4, expected: 29.1
[                     Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA] score:  4.8, white: 86.3, black:  8.4, mixed: 0.7, expected: 14.5
[ Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV] score:  4.8, white: 53.0, black: 25.3, mixed: 1.3, expected: 26.8
[               Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL] score:  4.9, white: 74.0, black: 16.6, mixed: 1.2, expected: 24.6
[                                   New Jersey] score:  4.9, white: 66.9, black: 13.6, mixed: 0.9, expected: 18.2
[                           Port St. Lucie, FL] score:  5.0, white: 76.7, black: 15.7, mixed: 1.2, expected: 24.1
[                                     New York] score:  5.0, white: 63.3, black: 15.7, mixed: 1.0, expected: 19.9
[                             Fayetteville, NC] score:  5.0, white: 48.6, black: 36.8, mixed: 1.8, expected: 35.8
[                                     Michigan] score:  5.1, white: 78.3, black: 13.8, mixed: 1.1, expected: 21.6
[                       Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ] score:  5.1, white: 65.1, black: 19.6, mixed: 1.3, expected: 25.5
[             Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN] score:  5.1, white: 75.8, black: 15.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 23.5
[           Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN] score:  5.2, white: 79.4, black: 14.6, mixed: 1.2, expected: 23.2
[                Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL] score:  5.2, white: 69.3, black: 16.7, mixed: 1.2, expected: 23.1
[                         Cleveland-Elyria, OH] score:  5.2, white: 73.6, black: 19.6, mixed: 1.5, expected: 28.9
[                           Jefferson City, MO] score:  5.2, white: 88.0, black:  8.7, mixed: 0.8, expected: 15.3
[                              Gainesville, FL] score:  5.3, white: 70.8, black: 18.5, mixed: 1.4, expected: 26.2
[              Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC] score:  5.3, white: 76.0, black: 16.0, mixed: 1.3, expected: 24.3
[                              Columbus, GA-AL] score:  5.3, white: 49.7, black: 41.4, mixed: 2.2, expected: 41.2
[                          Houma-Thibodaux, LA] score:  5.4, white: 74.8, black: 16.2, mixed: 1.3, expected: 24.2
[                    College Station-Bryan, TX] score:  5.4, white: 78.7, black: 11.8, mixed: 1.0, expected: 18.6
[                                     Virginia] score:  5.4, white: 67.4, black: 19.2, mixed: 1.4, expected: 25.9
[                                  Holland, MI] score:  5.4, white: 92.4, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.2, expected:  3.7
------------------ [United States] score:  5.5, white: 72.2, black: 12.7, mixed: 1.0, expected: 18.3 ----------------
[                           Grand Forks, ND-MN] score:  5.6, white: 85.0, black:  4.2, mixed: 0.4, expected:  7.1
[                    Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL] score:  5.6, white: 76.4, black: 15.1, mixed: 1.3, expected: 23.1
[                                Clearlake, CA] score:  5.7, white: 73.5, black:  2.4, mixed: 0.2, expected:  3.5
[        Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY] score:  5.7, white: 79.2, black: 12.2, mixed: 1.1, expected: 19.3
[                                    Flint, MI] score:  5.7, white: 74.9, black: 19.9, mixed: 1.7, expected: 29.8
[                       Ogdensburg-Massena, NY] score:  5.8, white: 92.5, black:  2.8, mixed: 0.3, expected:  5.2
[                        New Haven-Milford, CT] score:  5.9, white: 72.8, black: 14.0, mixed: 1.2, expected: 20.4
[                               San Angelo, TX] score:  5.9, white: 89.2, black:  3.8, mixed: 0.4, expected:  6.8
[                           Chattanooga, TN-GA] score:  5.9, white: 81.3, black: 13.5, mixed: 1.3, expected: 22.0
[                                 Syracuse, NY] score:  6.0, white: 84.0, black:  9.0, mixed: 0.9, expected: 15.1
[                California-Lexington Park, MD] score:  6.0, white: 77.1, black: 15.2, mixed: 1.4, expected: 23.4
[                                    Ocala, FL] score:  6.0, white: 81.8, black: 12.2, mixed: 1.2, expected: 20.0
[                                Flagstaff, AZ] score:  6.1, white: 63.4, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.1, expected:  1.6
[                                  Modesto, CA] score:  6.1, white: 78.9, black:  3.1, mixed: 0.3, expected:  4.9
[                              Bloomington, IL] score:  6.1, white: 84.6, black:  7.7, mixed: 0.8, expected: 13.0
[                            State College, PA] score:  6.2, white: 87.5, black:  3.7, mixed: 0.4, expected:  6.5
[                        Austin-Round Rock, TX] score:  6.3, white: 75.1, black:  7.4, mixed: 0.7, expected: 11.1
[                         Champaign-Urbana, IL] score:  6.3, white: 74.0, black: 11.8, mixed: 1.1, expected: 17.5
[                                     Missouri] score:  6.3, white: 82.2, black: 11.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 18.9
[                                   Wilson, NC] score:  6.4, white: 49.2, black: 39.6, mixed: 2.5, expected: 39.0
[                           Killeen-Temple, TX] score:  6.6, white: 65.2, black: 23.4, mixed: 2.0, expected: 30.5
[                               Moses Lake, WA] score:  6.6, white: 69.3, black:  1.1, mixed: 0.1, expected:  1.5
[                                   Racine, WI] score:  6.7, white: 82.1, black: 11.9, mixed: 1.3, expected: 19.5
[        Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA] score:  6.7, white: 89.4, black:  4.2, mixed: 0.5, expected:  7.5
[                                 Pennsylvania] score:  6.7, white: 80.1, black: 11.2, mixed: 1.2, expected: 17.9
[                                 Danville, VA] score:  6.8, white: 62.2, black: 30.9, mixed: 2.6, expected: 38.4
[                                Iowa City, IA] score:  6.8, white: 82.9, black:  6.2, mixed: 0.7, expected: 10.3
[                                 Columbus, OH] score:  6.8, white: 74.6, black: 15.7, mixed: 1.6, expected: 23.4
[                                 North Dakota] score:  6.9, white: 85.7, black:  3.4, mixed: 0.4, expected:  5.8
[                                    Tulsa, OK] score:  7.0, white: 71.9, black:  8.0, mixed: 0.8, expected: 11.5
[                San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX] score:  7.0, white: 82.4, black:  6.9, mixed: 0.8, expected: 11.4
[                               Pottsville, PA] score:  7.1, white: 93.3, black:  3.8, mixed: 0.5, expected:  7.1
[                         Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN] score:  7.1, white: 81.1, black: 12.2, mixed: 1.4, expected: 19.8
[           Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA] score:  7.1, white: 53.5, black:  6.6, mixed: 0.5, expected:  7.1
[                                Rochester, NY] score:  7.1, white: 80.8, black: 11.3, mixed: 1.3, expected: 18.3
[                              Bakersfield, CA] score:  7.1, white: 75.1, black:  5.6, mixed: 0.6, expected:  8.4
[                                   Dayton, OH] score:  7.2, white: 78.1, black: 15.2, mixed: 1.7, expected: 23.7
[                            Wichita Falls, TX] score:  7.2, white: 80.5, black:  9.5, mixed: 1.1, expected: 15.3
[                           Kansas City, MO-KS] score:  7.3, white: 78.3, black: 12.2, mixed: 1.4, expected: 19.1
[                              Walla Walla, WA] score:  7.4, white: 84.9, black:  2.4, mixed: 0.3, expected:  4.1
[                                  Lebanon, PA] score:  7.5, white: 86.2, black:  3.1, mixed: 0.4, expected:  5.3
[                                    Dover, DE] score:  7.5, white: 65.3, black: 25.5, mixed: 2.5, expected: 33.3
[                                 Amarillo, TX] score:  7.5, white: 84.4, black:  6.3, mixed: 0.8, expected: 10.6
[                                 Aberdeen, WA] score:  7.5, white: 88.4, black:  1.5, mixed: 0.2, expected:  2.7
[                      Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA] score:  7.5, white: 79.3, black: 11.7, mixed: 1.4, expected: 18.6
[                                      Indiana] score:  7.6, white: 82.8, black:  9.5, mixed: 1.2, expected: 15.7
[                            Evansville, IN-KY] score:  7.7, white: 87.6, black:  8.2, mixed: 1.1, expected: 14.4
[                                Knoxville, TN] score:  7.7, white: 89.4, black:  5.8, mixed: 0.8, expected: 10.4
[                               Utica-Rome, NY] score:  7.8, white: 87.2, black:  5.9, mixed: 0.8, expected: 10.3
[                                  Connecticut] score:  7.9, white: 75.2, black: 11.0, mixed: 1.3, expected: 16.5
[                  Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA] score:  7.9, white: 83.4, black:  7.6, mixed: 1.0, expected: 12.7
[                              Glens Falls, NY] score:  7.9, white: 94.7, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.3, expected:  3.8
[              Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT] score:  7.9, white: 71.3, black: 11.5, mixed: 1.3, expected: 16.4
[          Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL] score:  8.0, white: 77.2, black: 12.2, mixed: 1.5, expected: 18.8
[                                         Ohio] score:  8.0, white: 81.0, black: 12.4, mixed: 1.6, expected: 20.1
[     Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT] score:  8.0, white: 75.3, black: 11.6, mixed: 1.4, expected: 17.5
[                            Oklahoma City, OK] score:  8.1, white: 72.9, black: 10.2, mixed: 1.2, expected: 14.9
[            North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL] score:  8.1, white: 88.3, black:  6.3, mixed: 0.9, expected: 11.1
[                                 Muskegon, MI] score:  8.2, white: 81.1, black: 13.5, mixed: 1.8, expected: 21.9
[                            Stockton-Lodi, CA] score:  8.3, white: 58.0, black:  7.3, mixed: 0.7, expected:  8.5
[                  South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI] score:  8.3, white: 79.1, black: 12.2, mixed: 1.6, expected: 19.3
[                               Beaver Dam, WI] score:  8.5, white: 92.3, black:  3.2, mixed: 0.5, expected:  5.9
[                               Las Cruces, NM] score:  8.5, white: 88.4, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.3, expected:  3.5
[                 Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN] score:  8.5, white: 83.8, black:  4.9, mixed: 0.7, expected:  8.2
[                      Niles-Benton Harbor, MI] score:  8.6, white: 79.0, black: 14.0, mixed: 1.9, expected: 22.1
[                               Hinesville, GA] score:  8.6, white: 50.4, black: 32.3, mixed: 2.8, expected: 32.6
[                                    Akron, OH] score:  8.7, white: 81.0, black: 12.0, mixed: 1.7, expected: 19.4
[                                     Kentucky] score:  8.8, white: 86.7, black:  7.9, mixed: 1.2, expected: 13.7
[                              Springfield, IL] score:  8.8, white: 82.8, black: 11.7, mixed: 1.7, expected: 19.4
[                                  Decatur, IL] score:  8.8, white: 78.0, black: 16.8, mixed: 2.3, expected: 26.2
[                                 Columbia, MO] score:  8.8, white: 81.3, black:  9.1, mixed: 1.3, expected: 14.8
[      Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI] score:  8.8, white: 78.4, black:  8.7, mixed: 1.2, expected: 13.6
[                                 Rockford, IL] score:  8.8, white: 81.1, black: 11.2, mixed: 1.6, expected: 18.2
[             Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV] score:  8.8, white: 57.6, black: 11.8, mixed: 1.2, expected: 13.6
[                              Panama City, FL] score:  9.1, white: 79.5, black: 11.1, mixed: 1.6, expected: 17.6
[                Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA] score:  9.1, white: 78.4, black:  2.1, mixed: 0.3, expected:  3.3
[                          Lewiston-Auburn, ME] score:  9.1, white: 91.4, black:  3.0, mixed: 0.5, expected:  5.5
[                                    Wisconsin] score:  9.2, white: 85.3, black:  6.4, mixed: 1.0, expected: 10.9
[                               Pittsburgh, PA] score:  9.2, white: 86.4, black:  8.2, mixed: 1.3, expected: 14.2
[                                    Minnesota] score:  9.2, white: 82.5, black:  6.6, mixed: 1.0, expected: 10.9
[                              Springfield, MA] score:  9.3, white: 82.8, black:  7.8, mixed: 1.2, expected: 12.9
[                                       Nevada] score:  9.4, white: 63.4, black:  9.2, mixed: 1.1, expected: 11.7
[                                  Abilene, TX] score:  9.4, white: 75.6, black:  8.4, mixed: 1.2, expected: 12.7
[       Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, FL] score:  9.5, white: 80.7, black:  8.5, mixed: 1.3, expected: 13.7
[                                Ann Arbor, MI] score:  9.5, white: 73.4, black: 11.5, mixed: 1.6, expected: 16.9
[                                     Oklahoma] score:  9.5, white: 72.2, black:  7.3, mixed: 1.0, expected: 10.5
[                                  Lubbock, TX] score:  9.6, white: 81.7, black:  7.0, mixed: 1.1, expected: 11.4
[                                Asheville, NC] score:  9.6, white: 90.4, black:  4.6, mixed: 0.8, expected:  8.3
[                                   Auburn, NY] score:  9.7, white: 92.1, black:  4.5, mixed: 0.8, expected:  8.3
[                                     Nebraska] score:  9.9, white: 86.4, black:  4.7, mixed: 0.8, expected:  8.1
[                                 Santa Fe, NM] score: 10.0, white: 83.3, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.2, expected:  2.0
[                                Rochester, MN] score: 10.0, white: 86.9, black:  4.6, mixed: 0.8, expected:  8.0
[                                El Centro, CA] score: 10.1, white: 64.4, black:  2.3, mixed: 0.3, expected:  3.0
[                                   Madera, CA] score: 10.1, white: 58.0, black:  3.4, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.9
[                                   California] score: 10.1, white: 59.5, black:  5.8, mixed: 0.7, expected:  6.9
[         Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA] score: 10.2, white: 60.7, black:  7.3, mixed: 0.9, expected:  8.9
[                                 Rhode Island] score: 10.2, white: 80.7, black:  6.7, mixed: 1.1, expected: 10.8
[                                     Dunn, NC] score: 10.2, white: 68.6, black: 19.3, mixed: 2.7, expected: 26.5
[                                  Wichita, KS] score: 10.3, white: 79.9, black:  7.9, mixed: 1.3, expected: 12.6
[                    Providence-Warwick, RI-MA] score: 10.4, white: 81.8, black:  5.9, mixed: 1.0, expected:  9.7
[                  Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ] score: 10.4, white: 65.3, black: 14.0, mixed: 1.9, expected: 18.3
[                             Cedar Rapids, IA] score: 10.4, white: 89.0, black:  5.4, mixed: 1.0, expected:  9.6
[                              Punta Gorda, FL] score: 10.4, white: 90.3, black:  5.3, mixed: 1.0, expected:  9.6
[                                  Roanoke, VA] score: 10.5, white: 80.1, black: 13.1, mixed: 2.2, expected: 21.0
[                                   Peoria, IL] score: 10.5, white: 84.6, black:  9.0, mixed: 1.6, expected: 15.2
[                                   Toledo, OH] score: 10.6, white: 77.2, black: 14.0, mixed: 2.3, expected: 21.6
[                         Sioux City, IA-NE-SD] score: 10.7, white: 85.9, black:  3.8, mixed: 0.7, expected:  6.5
[                 Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC] score: 10.8, white: 84.1, black:  6.6, mixed: 1.2, expected: 11.1
[                   Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO] score: 10.8, white: 81.1, black:  5.7, mixed: 1.0, expected:  9.2
[                                 Muskogee, OK] score: 10.9, white: 56.8, black: 10.5, mixed: 1.3, expected: 11.9
[                              Sioux Falls, SD] score: 11.0, white: 87.5, black:  5.2, mixed: 1.0, expected:  9.1
[                       San Diego-Carlsbad, CA] score: 11.0, white: 71.0, black:  5.1, mixed: 0.8, expected:  7.2
[                      Visalia-Porterville, CA] score: 11.1, white: 71.3, black:  1.9, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.7
[                  Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ] score: 11.1, white: 78.8, black:  5.7, mixed: 1.0, expected:  9.0
[                              Terre Haute, IN] score: 11.4, white: 89.7, black:  5.4, mixed: 1.1, expected:  9.7
[            Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA] score: 11.4, white: 85.0, black: 10.3, mixed: 2.0, expected: 17.5
[                              Gainesville, GA] score: 11.4, white: 86.2, black:  6.6, mixed: 1.3, expected: 11.4
[                        Lexington-Fayette, KY] score: 11.5, white: 80.1, black: 10.9, mixed: 2.0, expected: 17.5
[                                Massachusetts] score: 11.6, white: 77.3, black:  7.8, mixed: 1.4, expected: 12.1
[            San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA] score: 11.6, white: 47.8, black:  7.2, mixed: 0.8, expected:  6.9
[                               Oak Harbor, WA] score: 11.8, white: 85.0, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.4
[                                  Greeley, CO] score: 11.8, white: 90.6, black:  1.4, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.5
[                               Fort Wayne, IN] score: 11.9, white: 80.1, black: 10.0, mixed: 1.9, expected: 16.0
[               Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH] score: 11.9, white: 75.1, black:  8.4, mixed: 1.5, expected: 12.6
[                        Carbondale-Marion, IL] score: 11.9, white: 83.1, black:  8.6, mixed: 1.7, expected: 14.3
[                                Fairbanks, AK] score: 12.0, white: 75.1, black:  5.0, mixed: 0.9, expected:  7.5
[                              Ottawa-Peru, IL] score: 12.0, white: 92.6, black:  2.7, mixed: 0.6, expected:  5.0
[            Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL] score: 12.0, white: 82.3, black:  9.6, mixed: 1.9, expected: 15.8
[               Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA] score: 12.0, white: 86.2, black:  5.3, mixed: 1.1, expected:  9.1
[        Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO] score: 12.1, white: 82.9, black:  2.5, mixed: 0.5, expected:  4.1
[                               Torrington, CT] score: 12.1, white: 92.1, black:  1.8, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.3
[                                       Kansas] score: 12.1, white: 84.0, black:  5.9, mixed: 1.2, expected:  9.9
[                                     Erie, PA] score: 12.2, white: 86.3, black:  7.6, mixed: 1.6, expected: 13.1
[                                     Yuma, AZ] score: 12.2, white: 87.5, black:  2.8, mixed: 0.6, expected:  4.9
[                                      Arizona] score: 12.3, white: 78.0, black:  4.7, mixed: 0.9, expected:  7.3
[                         Hanford-Corcoran, CA] score: 12.5, white: 63.8, black:  6.9, mixed: 1.1, expected:  8.8
[                        Vallejo-Fairfield, CA] score: 12.6, white: 53.3, black: 13.4, mixed: 1.8, expected: 14.3
[                               Stillwater, OK] score: 12.7, white: 80.6, black:  3.9, mixed: 0.8, expected:  6.3
[                                     Colorado] score: 12.7, white: 84.1, black:  4.2, mixed: 0.9, expected:  7.1
[                  Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY] score: 12.8, white: 82.3, black:  8.1, mixed: 1.7, expected: 13.3
[                  Portland-South Portland, ME] score: 12.8, white: 93.3, black:  2.1, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.9
[                  Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY] score: 12.8, white: 82.1, black:  9.5, mixed: 2.0, expected: 15.6
[                                  Shawnee, OK] score: 12.9, white: 75.4, black:  3.6, mixed: 0.7, expected:  5.4
[                                 Appleton, WI] score: 13.0, white: 90.8, black:  1.7, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.1
[      Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade, CA] score: 13.0, white: 65.0, black:  7.1, mixed: 1.2, expected:  9.2
[                        Homosassa Springs, FL] score: 13.1, white: 92.4, black:  2.9, mixed: 0.7, expected:  5.4
[                     Lansing-East Lansing, MI] score: 13.2, white: 80.2, black:  9.0, mixed: 1.9, expected: 14.4
[                     Claremont-Lebanon, NH-VT] score: 13.2, white: 94.4, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.3
[                                   Merced, CA] score: 13.2, white: 57.2, black:  3.3, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.8
[                                  Jackson, MI] score: 13.3, white: 87.0, black:  7.8, mixed: 1.8, expected: 13.6
[                                   Topeka, KS] score: 13.4, white: 84.9, black:  6.6, mixed: 1.5, expected: 11.2
[                             Worcester, MA-CT] score: 13.4, white: 83.7, black:  4.9, mixed: 1.1, expected:  8.2
[                              Great Falls, MT] score: 13.5, white: 87.4, black:  1.7, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.0
[                             Jacksonville, NC] score: 13.5, white: 74.2, black: 14.0, mixed: 2.8, expected: 20.8
[                                Mansfield, OH] score: 13.5, white: 87.1, black:  8.5, mixed: 2.0, expected: 14.8
[                           Salt Lake City, UT] score: 13.5, white: 77.7, black:  1.9, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.0
[                     Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI] score: 13.6, white: 83.8, black:  6.6, mixed: 1.5, expected: 11.1
[                                   Ithaca, NY] score: 13.7, white: 79.3, black:  4.6, mixed: 1.0, expected:  7.3
[                               Charleston, WV] score: 13.9, white: 90.0, black:  6.4, mixed: 1.6, expected: 11.5
[                    Mankato-North Mankato, MN] score: 14.2, white: 90.6, black:  3.5, mixed: 0.9, expected:  6.3
[                                Lancaster, PA] score: 14.3, white: 87.6, black:  4.4, mixed: 1.1, expected:  7.7
[                                   Bangor, ME] score: 14.4, white: 94.7, black:  1.1, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.1
[                             York-Hanover, PA] score: 14.5, white: 87.9, black:  5.5, mixed: 1.4, expected:  9.7
[                               Hutchinson, KS] score: 14.6, white: 91.1, black:  3.0, mixed: 0.8, expected:  5.5
[                                     Lima, OH] score: 14.6, white: 82.4, black: 11.6, mixed: 2.8, expected: 19.1
[                  Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA] score: 14.7, white: 67.8, black:  6.0, mixed: 1.2, expected:  8.1
[                                   New Mexico] score: 14.9, white: 76.4, black:  2.2, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.4
[                               Binghamton, NY] score: 14.9, white: 87.4, black:  4.6, mixed: 1.2, expected:  8.0
[                                  El Paso, TX] score: 14.9, white: 78.1, black:  3.0, mixed: 0.7, expected:  4.7
[                    La Crosse-Onalaska, WI-MN] score: 15.2, white: 91.5, black:  1.8, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.3
[                                   Odessa, TX] score: 15.2, white: 77.3, black:  5.1, mixed: 1.2, expected:  7.9
[                            Fort Smith, AR-OK] score: 15.4, white: 75.0, black:  3.9, mixed: 0.9, expected:  5.9
[                                         Iowa] score: 15.4, white: 90.2, black:  3.6, mixed: 1.0, expected:  6.5
[                         Canton-Massillon, OH] score: 15.4, white: 87.9, black:  7.0, mixed: 1.9, expected: 12.3
[                                  Madison, WI] score: 15.5, white: 86.0, black:  4.5, mixed: 1.2, expected:  7.7
[                                West Virginia] score: 15.6, white: 93.0, black:  3.8, mixed: 1.1, expected:  7.1
[                             Johnson City, TN] score: 15.7, white: 92.7, black:  3.1, mixed: 0.9, expected:  5.7
[                       Norwich-New London, CT] score: 15.7, white: 79.5, black:  6.4, mixed: 1.6, expected: 10.2
[                         Colorado Springs, CO] score: 15.9, white: 80.1, black:  6.3, mixed: 1.6, expected: 10.1
[                                Manhattan, KS] score: 16.0, white: 85.9, black:  5.1, mixed: 1.4, expected:  8.8
[                                       Alaska] score: 16.0, white: 64.4, black:  3.4, mixed: 0.7, expected:  4.4
[                Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV] score: 16.1, white: 84.3, black:  9.6, mixed: 2.6, expected: 16.2
[                 Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH] score: 16.3, white: 94.5, black:  2.6, mixed: 0.8, expected:  4.9
[               Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY] score: 16.3, white: 90.9, black:  2.7, mixed: 0.8, expected:  4.9
[                              Albuquerque, NM] score: 16.6, white: 78.3, black:  2.7, mixed: 0.7, expected:  4.2
[                             Battle Creek, MI] score: 16.6, white: 81.1, black: 10.4, mixed: 2.8, expected: 16.9
[                                   Fresno, CA] score: 16.8, white: 64.7, black:  4.6, mixed: 1.0, expected:  6.0
[                         Ogden-Clearfield, UT] score: 16.9, white: 90.9, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.4
[                          Greenfield Town, MA] score: 17.0, white: 92.1, black:  1.6, mixed: 0.5, expected:  2.9
[                        Kalamazoo-Portage, MI] score: 17.0, white: 81.6, black:  9.0, mixed: 2.5, expected: 14.7
[            Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ] score: 17.0, white: 83.2, black:  6.0, mixed: 1.7, expected: 10.0
[                            St. Joseph, MO-KS] score: 17.3, white: 89.0, black:  5.2, mixed: 1.6, expected:  9.3
[                              Springfield, OH] score: 17.3, white: 87.1, black:  8.3, mixed: 2.5, expected: 14.5
[           San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA] score: 17.5, white: 45.6, black:  2.5, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.3
[                           Richmond-Berea, KY] score: 17.6, white: 92.2, black:  3.7, mixed: 1.2, expected:  6.8
[                                      Vermont] score: 17.7, white: 94.1, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.3
[                                         Utah] score: 18.0, white: 85.7, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.2
[                                 Kingston, NY] score: 18.0, white: 83.5, black:  6.0, mixed: 1.8, expected: 10.0
[                                   Tucson, AZ] score: 18.2, white: 74.3, black:  3.7, mixed: 1.0, expected:  5.5
[                     Sierra Vista-Douglas, AZ] score: 18.3, white: 86.3, black:  3.8, mixed: 1.2, expected:  6.6
[          Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL] score: 18.4, white: 84.4, black:  7.1, mixed: 2.2, expected: 12.0
[                                     Reno, NV] score: 18.4, white: 75.9, black:  2.5, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.8
[                                Anchorage, AK] score: 18.5, white: 67.7, black:  4.4, mixed: 1.1, expected:  6.0
[                      Watertown-Fort Drum, NY] score: 18.5, white: 85.4, black:  6.0, mixed: 1.9, expected: 10.2
[                               Morgantown, WV] score: 18.6, white: 89.8, black:  4.2, mixed: 1.4, expected:  7.5
[                              Hot Springs, AR] score: 18.8, white: 86.1, black:  7.4, mixed: 2.4, expected: 12.7
[                                   Washington] score: 18.9, white: 74.8, black:  3.9, mixed: 1.1, expected:  5.8
[                                        Maine] score: 18.9, white: 94.3, black:  1.4, mixed: 0.5, expected:  2.6
[                                 South Dakota] score: 18.9, white: 84.0, black:  2.2, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.7
[                                    Minot, ND] score: 19.0, white: 87.7, black:  3.9, mixed: 1.3, expected:  6.8
[San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA] score: 19.1, white: 87.4, black:  1.8, mixed: 0.6, expected:  3.1
[          Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA] score: 19.1, white: 81.2, black:  2.9, mixed: 0.9, expected:  4.7
[                                Marquette, MI] score: 19.2, white: 93.0, black:  1.4, mixed: 0.5, expected:  2.6
[                                    Salem, OR] score: 19.3, white: 79.8, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.1
[                                   Pueblo, CO] score: 19.4, white: 82.0, black:  2.2, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.6
[                                Johnstown, PA] score: 19.5, white: 93.4, black:  3.3, mixed: 1.2, expected:  6.2
[                          Sherman-Denison, TX] score: 19.6, white: 85.2, black:  5.7, mixed: 1.9, expected:  9.7
[                                  Salinas, CA] score: 19.7, white: 47.1, black:  2.7, mixed: 0.5, expected:  2.5
[                               Rapid City, SD] score: 19.7, white: 84.5, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.0
[                              Wheeling, WV-OH] score: 19.7, white: 93.8, black:  2.7, mixed: 1.0, expected:  5.1
[                                  Lincoln, NE] score: 19.9, white: 86.0, black:  3.8, mixed: 1.3, expected:  6.5
[                 Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ] score: 19.9, white: 91.2, black:  1.1, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.0
[                                  Reading, PA] score: 20.1, white: 83.1, black:  5.1, mixed: 1.7, expected:  8.5
[                             Williamsport, PA] score: 20.2, white: 92.0, black:  4.3, mixed: 1.6, expected:  7.9
[                  Chambersburg-Waynesboro, PA] score: 20.3, white: 92.5, black:  3.2, mixed: 1.2, expected:  5.9
[                                   Yakima, WA] score: 20.5, white: 75.2, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.0
[                                Cleveland, TN] score: 20.5, white: 89.3, black:  4.1, mixed: 1.5, expected:  7.3
[                        Manchester-Nashua, NH] score: 20.6, white: 88.3, black:  3.3, mixed: 1.2, expected:  5.8
[                            Bowling Green, KY] score: 20.7, white: 84.6, black:  5.7, mixed: 2.0, expected:  9.6
[                                       Oregon] score: 20.9, white: 83.9, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.4
[                                 Bismarck, ND] score: 20.9, white: 88.0, black:  1.9, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.3
[                     Tullahoma-Manchester, TN] score: 21.0, white: 91.1, black:  3.4, mixed: 1.3, expected:  6.2
[                                Frankfort, KY] score: 21.0, white: 84.8, black:  7.3, mixed: 2.6, expected: 12.4
[                                   Lawton, OK] score: 21.2, white: 63.1, black: 14.2, mixed: 3.8, expected: 17.9
[                                   Athens, OH] score: 21.7, white: 90.7, black:  2.8, mixed: 1.1, expected:  5.1
[         Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton, PA] score: 21.8, white: 89.1, black:  3.6, mixed: 1.4, expected:  6.4
[                                  Medford, OR] score: 21.9, white: 91.2, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  1.8
[             Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA] score: 22.1, white: 95.2, black:  1.9, mixed: 0.8, expected:  3.6
[                              Springfield, MO] score: 22.2, white: 91.6, black:  2.7, mixed: 1.1, expected:  4.9
[                                New Hampshire] score: 22.3, white: 92.4, black:  1.7, mixed: 0.7, expected:  3.1
[                             Grand Island, NE] score: 22.3, white: 83.9, black:  1.6, mixed: 0.6, expected:  2.7
[                                 Victoria, TX] score: 22.6, white: 87.8, black:  5.8, mixed: 2.3, expected: 10.2
[                                  Boulder, CO] score: 22.8, white: 87.8, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  1.8
[                           Mount Pleasant, MI] score: 23.1, white: 86.6, black:  2.5, mixed: 1.0, expected:  4.3
[                           Elkhart-Goshen, IN] score: 23.7, white: 85.4, black:  4.7, mixed: 1.9, expected:  8.0
[                           Oshkosh-Neenah, WI] score: 24.8, white: 91.6, black:  2.2, mixed: 1.0, expected:  4.0
[                  Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH] score: 25.3, white: 92.8, black:  3.2, mixed: 1.5, expected:  5.9
[                                Owensboro, KY] score: 25.4, white: 90.5, black:  3.7, mixed: 1.7, expected:  6.7
[                                Sheboygan, WI] score: 25.5, white: 89.2, black:  2.2, mixed: 1.0, expected:  3.9
[                 San Juan-Carolina-Caguas, PR] score: 25.5, white: 65.4, black: 15.3, mixed: 5.1, expected: 20.0
[             Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA] score: 25.5, white: 80.6, black:  1.7, mixed: 0.7, expected:  2.7
[                                 Lawrence, KS] score: 25.7, white: 81.3, black:  4.3, mixed: 1.8, expected:  7.0
[                                  Shelton, WA] score: 25.8, white: 80.9, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.5, expected:  1.9
[                                  Puerto Rico] score: 25.8, white: 65.1, black: 12.5, mixed: 4.2, expected: 16.3
[                                   DuBois, PA] score: 26.5, white: 94.3, black:  2.4, mixed: 1.2, expected:  4.5
[                                Green Bay, WI] score: 28.3, white: 88.4, black:  2.2, mixed: 1.1, expected:  3.9
[                                     Enid, OK] score: 28.6, white: 81.3, black:  2.8, mixed: 1.3, expected:  4.6
[                               Pittsfield, MA] score: 28.6, white: 90.1, black:  3.1, mixed: 1.6, expected:  5.6
[                                  Redding, CA] score: 29.3, white: 85.3, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.6, expected:  2.0
[                                   Joplin, MO] score: 29.5, white: 89.7, black:  1.7, mixed: 0.9, expected:  3.0
[                               Santa Rosa, CA] score: 29.6, white: 73.9, black:  1.6, mixed: 0.7, expected:  2.4
[              Burlington-South Burlington, VT] score: 30.5, white: 91.0, black:  1.8, mixed: 1.0, expected:  3.3
[                                Meadville, PA] score: 31.4, white: 95.4, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.6, expected:  1.9
[                             Fort Collins, CO] score: 32.8, white: 91.4, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.6, expected:  1.8
[                                   Monroe, MI] score: 32.9, white: 94.0, black:  2.1, mixed: 1.3, expected:  3.9
[                              Bloomington, IN] score: 33.1, white: 87.1, black:  2.6, mixed: 1.5, expected:  4.5
[                       Kennewick-Richland, WA] score: 33.4, white: 78.5, black:  2.1, mixed: 1.1, expected:  3.3
[                         Olympia-Tumwater, WA] score: 34.0, white: 80.6, black:  3.1, mixed: 1.7, expected:  5.0
[                                  Indiana, PA] score: 34.1, white: 94.8, black:  1.7, mixed: 1.1, expected:  3.2
[                        Janesville-Beloit, WI] score: 34.9, white: 85.9, black:  4.0, mixed: 2.4, expected:  6.9
[                               Boise City, ID] score: 36.3, white: 87.6, black:  1.1, mixed: 0.7, expected:  1.9
[                                Duluth, MN-WI] score: 36.4, white: 91.7, black:  1.5, mixed: 1.0, expected:  2.8
[                                     Napa, CA] score: 36.9, white: 76.3, black:  1.6, mixed: 0.9, expected:  2.4
[                                   Adrian, MI] score: 37.1, white: 93.7, black:  2.3, mixed: 1.6, expected:  4.3
[                           Urban Honolulu, HI] score: 37.5, white: 20.5, black:  2.6, mixed: 0.4, expected:  1.1
[                                    Olean, NY] score: 37.7, white: 91.7, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.9, expected:  2.4
[                             Harrisonburg, VA] score: 38.6, white: 88.7, black:  3.8, mixed: 2.6, expected:  6.7
[                                    Chico, CA] score: 40.1, white: 80.6, black:  1.7, mixed: 1.1, expected:  2.7
[                   Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA] score: 40.8, white: 73.5, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.6, expected:  1.5
[                                       Hawaii] score: 41.2, white: 24.3, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  1.0
[                     Bremerton-Silverdale, WA] score: 41.8, white: 79.8, black:  2.4, mixed: 1.6, expected:  3.8
[                   Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA] score: 42.9, white: 87.4, black:  1.6, mixed: 1.2, expected:  2.8
[                                Corvallis, OR] score: 43.3, white: 83.9, black:  1.1, mixed: 0.8, expected:  1.8
[                                Yuba City, CA] score: 46.0, white: 72.4, black:  2.4, mixed: 1.6, expected:  3.5
[                                 Cheyenne, WY] score: 46.7, white: 91.0, black:  2.0, mixed: 1.7, expected:  3.6
[                               Gettysburg, PA] score: 53.2, white: 94.0, black:  1.2, mixed: 1.2, expected:  2.3
[                               Bellingham, WA] score: 53.9, white: 83.5, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.9, expected:  1.7
[                    Eureka-Arcata-Fortuna, CA] score: 58.4, white: 77.8, black:  1.1, mixed: 1.0, expected:  1.7
[                                     Ames, IA] score: 81.3, white: 85.2, black:  1.3, mixed: 1.8, expected:  2.2

Looking at the above, we see a couple of data points that strongly dispute our hypothesis.
The New York metro area has a lower score, compared to New York state as a whole.
The Chicago metro area has a lower score, compared to Illinois as a whole.
Los Angeles has a lower score, compared to California as a whole.
Both Houston and Dallas have lower scores, compared to Texas as a whole.

Contrary to popular belief, it appears that large urban cities are even more racially segregated, compared to the state they are in.

This can potentially be explained by the same relationship we found earlier – major cities tend to have larger Black demographics, and we’ve seen that segregation tends to be (but not always) more prevalent in more diverse communities. Ames (Iowa) exemplifies this trend. With a Black demographic that makes up a mere 1.3% of its population, and 1.8% more who identify as White-Black biracial, Ames trounces every major city when it comes to White-Black integration.

White-Asian Integration by State

The above numbers are all specific to White-Black race relations. But what about other races like Asians? How do they compare, and do the above patterns hold true there as well?

[     New Jersey] score:  4.6, white: 66.9, asian:  9.7, mixed: 0.6, expected: 13.0
[       New York] score:  6.5, white: 63.3, asian:  8.5, mixed: 0.7, expected: 10.8
[          Texas] score:  6.8, white: 73.5, asian:  5.0, mixed: 0.5, expected:  7.4
[   Pennsylvania] score:  6.9, white: 80.1, asian:  3.6, mixed: 0.4, expected:  5.8
[   South Dakota] score:  7.0, white: 84.0, asian:  1.7, mixed: 0.2, expected:  2.9
[    Connecticut] score:  7.2, white: 75.2, asian:  4.6, mixed: 0.5, expected:  6.9
[  Massachusetts] score:  7.6, white: 77.3, asian:  6.8, mixed: 0.8, expected: 10.5
[     California] score:  8.6, white: 59.5, asian: 14.7, mixed: 1.5, expected: 17.5
[       Illinois] score:  8.7, white: 71.7, asian:  5.6, mixed: 0.7, expected:  8.0
[           Iowa] score:  8.9, white: 90.2, asian:  2.5, mixed: 0.4, expected:  4.5
[       Delaware] score:  9.2, white: 68.2, asian:  4.0, mixed: 0.5, expected:  5.5
[       Michigan] score:  9.7, white: 78.3, asian:  3.3, mixed: 0.5, expected:  5.2
[ North Carolina] score:  9.7, white: 68.4, asian:  3.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  4.1
-------------- [United States] score:  9.9, white: 72.2, asian:  5.6, mixed: 0.8, expected:  8.1 --------------
[      Minnesota] score:  9.9, white: 82.5, asian:  4.9, mixed: 0.8, expected:  8.1
[        Georgia] score: 10.5, white: 58.3, asian:  4.1, mixed: 0.5, expected:  4.8
[      Wisconsin] score: 10.5, white: 85.3, asian:  2.8, mixed: 0.5, expected:  4.8
[        Indiana] score: 10.5, white: 82.8, asian:  2.3, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.8
[           Ohio] score: 10.7, white: 81.0, asian:  2.3, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.7
[       Kentucky] score: 11.5, white: 86.7, asian:  1.5, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.6
[        Florida] score: 12.0, white: 74.6, asian:  2.8, mixed: 0.5, expected:  4.2
[       Arkansas] score: 12.3, white: 76.5, asian:  1.6, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.4
[         Nevada] score: 12.5, white: 63.4, asian:  8.2, mixed: 1.3, expected: 10.4
[         Kansas] score: 12.8, white: 84.0, asian:  2.8, mixed: 0.6, expected:  4.7
[   Rhode Island] score: 12.8, white: 80.7, asian:  3.4, mixed: 0.7, expected:  5.5
[   North Dakota] score: 13.0, white: 85.7, asian:  1.8, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.1
[       Maryland] score: 13.1, white: 54.7, asian:  6.3, mixed: 0.9, expected:  6.9
[       Oklahoma] score: 13.2, white: 72.2, asian:  2.1, mixed: 0.4, expected:  3.0
[       Virginia] score: 13.7, white: 67.4, asian:  6.5, mixed: 1.2, expected:  8.8
[        Vermont] score: 14.0, white: 94.1, asian:  1.9, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.6
[ South Carolina] score: 14.0, white: 67.0, asian:  1.6, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.1
[  New Hampshire] score: 14.0, white: 92.4, asian:  2.7, mixed: 0.7, expected:  5.0
[      Tennessee] score: 14.4, white: 77.3, asian:  1.8, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.8
[     Washington] score: 14.4, white: 74.8, asian:  8.8, mixed: 1.9, expected: 13.2
[       Nebraska] score: 14.5, white: 86.4, asian:  2.4, mixed: 0.6, expected:  4.1
[         Alaska] score: 14.8, white: 64.4, asian:  6.3, mixed: 1.2, expected:  8.1
[       Missouri] score: 15.2, white: 82.2, asian:  2.0, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.3
[         Oregon] score: 15.5, white: 83.9, asian:  4.6, mixed: 1.2, expected:  7.7
[     New Mexico] score: 16.4, white: 76.4, asian:  1.6, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.4
[        Alabama] score: 17.0, white: 67.7, asian:  1.3, mixed: 0.3, expected:  1.8
[        Arizona] score: 17.5, white: 78.0, asian:  3.3, mixed: 0.9, expected:  5.1
[          Maine] score: 17.7, white: 94.3, asian:  1.2, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.3
[       Colorado] score: 18.6, white: 84.1, asian:  3.2, mixed: 1.0, expected:  5.4
[      Louisiana] score: 20.3, white: 61.7, asian:  1.6, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.0
[        Wyoming] score: 21.9, white: 91.5, asian:  1.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  1.8
[           Utah] score: 21.9, white: 85.7, asian:  2.4, mixed: 0.9, expected:  4.1
[          Idaho] score: 26.0, white: 89.9, asian:  1.5, mixed: 0.7, expected:  2.7
[         Hawaii] score: 27.4, white: 24.3, asian: 37.6, mixed: 5.0, expected: 18.3

Once again, Hawaii scores at the very top of the list, cementing its status as the most racially integrated state of all. With a White demographic of 24% and an Asian demographic of 38%, it even bucks the diversity-segregation trend that we’ve seen elsewhere – demonstrating decisively that diverse communities can indeed overcome segregation.

And looking at the other states, we see that Asians have been integrated into mainstream society far more so than African-Americans. The US as a whole clocks in at 9.9 – almost double the 5.5 score that we saw earlier for White-Black integration.

But the biggest surprise of all, are the states that we see at the bottom of the list – New Jersey and New York. Even California, boasting the largest Asian population, is significantly below average. In our earlier White-Black rankings, Mississippi Alabama and Louisiana were at the bottom, and had reputations for poor racial relations. However, New Jersey, New York and California, are hardly seen in the same light.

One possible explanation is the correlation we saw earlier between diversity and segregation. But it doesn’t explain everything. California has a much larger Asian demographic than both New Jersey and New York, but is significantly more integrated. There are also a number of other states with outsized Asian demographics, such as Washington and Nevada, which score above average. Conversely, there are a number of states with below-average Asian demographics, such as Pennsylvania and South Dakota, which score significantly below average. With regard to White-Asian race relations, the correlation between diversity and segregation does seem to exist, but isn’t nearly as strong as what we saw earlier.

A different explanation, is the recent influx of Asian immigrants, who have disproportionately settled down in New York, New Jersey and California. Given their recent arrival, it is expected that they would swell the Asian demographic in those states. However, since the biracial demographic is a lagging indicator, it would take many decades for it to catch up. Especially since many Asian immigrants have moved here with a spouse in tow. In order to truly quantify White-Asian integration in states disproportionately impacted by immigration, we would need to exclude immigrants from our study, or gather other more precise data.

Racial Integration Across the Years

If any of the above sounds like a depressing indictment of our race relations, there is still much reason for hope. We need only compare today’s scores, to the same scores from 8 years prior.

[    Mississippi] score:  0.9, white: 59.5, black: 37.3, mixed: 0.4, expected: 44.4
[        Alabama] score:  1.1, white: 69.5, black: 26.4, mixed: 0.4, expected: 36.7
[      Louisiana] score:  1.2, white: 62.8, black: 32.0, mixed: 0.5, expected: 40.2
[       Arkansas] score:  1.6, white: 78.4, black: 15.9, mixed: 0.4, expected: 24.9
[        Georgia] score:  1.6, white: 60.7, black: 30.6, mixed: 0.6, expected: 37.1
[ South Carolina] score:  1.9, white: 67.1, black: 28.1, mixed: 0.7, expected: 37.7
[      Tennessee] score:  2.3, white: 78.4, black: 16.8, mixed: 0.6, expected: 26.3
[ North Carolina] score:  2.3, white: 69.7, black: 21.4, mixed: 0.7, expected: 29.8
[       Maryland] score:  2.6, white: 58.9, black: 29.4, mixed: 0.9, expected: 34.6
[       Illinois] score:  2.9, white: 72.5, black: 14.5, mixed: 0.6, expected: 21.0
[          Texas] score:  2.9, white: 74.1, black: 11.8, mixed: 0.5, expected: 17.5
[        Florida] score:  2.9, white: 76.5, black: 15.9, mixed: 0.7, expected: 24.3
[       Virginia] score:  2.9, white: 69.5, black: 19.6, mixed: 0.8, expected: 27.2
[       Delaware] score:  3.0, white: 70.7, black: 21.3, mixed: 0.9, expected: 30.1
[       Missouri] score:  3.1, white: 83.1, black: 11.7, mixed: 0.6, expected: 19.4
[       New York] score:  3.4, white: 65.9, black: 15.5, mixed: 0.7, expected: 20.4
[       Michigan] score:  3.6, white: 79.3, black: 14.0, mixed: 0.8, expected: 22.2
------------ [United States] score:  3.7, white: 74.2, black: 12.6, mixed: 0.7, expected: 18.7 ------------
[     New Jersey] score:  4.3, white: 69.3, black: 13.5, mixed: 0.8, expected: 18.7
[   Pennsylvania] score:  4.5, white: 82.6, black: 10.8, mixed: 0.8, expected: 17.8
[           Ohio] score:  4.9, white: 83.0, black: 12.2, mixed: 1.0, expected: 20.3
[    Connecticut] score:  5.1, white: 78.2, black: 10.0, mixed: 0.8, expected: 15.6
[       Kentucky] score:  5.1, white: 88.3, black:  7.7, mixed: 0.7, expected: 13.6
[        Indiana] score:  5.2, white: 85.1, black:  9.0, mixed: 0.8, expected: 15.3
[      Wisconsin] score:  5.6, white: 87.0, black:  6.2, mixed: 0.6, expected: 10.8
[         Nevada] score:  6.0, white: 72.9, black:  8.0, mixed: 0.7, expected: 11.7
[       Nebraska] score:  6.4, white: 88.9, black:  4.4, mixed: 0.5, expected:  7.8
[     California] score:  6.7, white: 62.4, black:  6.0, mixed: 0.5, expected:  7.5
[   Rhode Island] score:  7.2, white: 81.4, black:  6.0, mixed: 0.7, expected:  9.8
[       Oklahoma] score:  7.6, white: 73.5, black:  7.2, mixed: 0.8, expected: 10.6
[        Arizona] score:  7.7, white: 79.4, black:  4.1, mixed: 0.5, expected:  6.5
[   North Dakota] score:  8.5, white: 90.0, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.2, expected:  2.3
[      Minnesota] score:  8.9, white: 86.1, black:  5.2, mixed: 0.8, expected:  9.0
[         Kansas] score:  9.1, white: 85.2, black:  5.8, mixed: 0.9, expected:  9.9
[       Colorado] score:  9.2, white: 83.3, black:  3.9, mixed: 0.6, expected:  6.5
[           Iowa] score: 10.6, white: 91.5, black:  3.1, mixed: 0.6, expected:  5.7
[         Alaska] score: 10.6, white: 67.4, black:  3.5, mixed: 0.5, expected:  4.7
[  Massachusetts] score: 10.9, white: 81.1, black:  6.8, mixed: 1.2, expected: 11.0
[  West Virginia] score: 12.0, white: 93.9, black:  3.1, mixed: 0.7, expected:  5.8
[   South Dakota] score: 13.4, white: 86.0, black:  1.3, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.2
[     New Mexico] score: 13.6, white: 73.4, black:  2.0, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.9
[          Maine] score: 14.3, white: 95.3, black:  1.1, mixed: 0.3, expected:  2.1
[     Washington] score: 14.5, white: 78.7, black:  3.5, mixed: 0.8, expected:  5.5
[         Oregon] score: 16.3, white: 85.0, black:  1.8, mixed: 0.5, expected:  3.1
[           Utah] score: 16.9, white: 88.8, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.3, expected:  1.8
[  New Hampshire] score: 17.7, white: 94.1, black:  1.2, mixed: 0.4, expected:  2.3
[        Vermont] score: 26.2, white: 95.4, black:  1.0, mixed: 0.5, expected:  1.9
[         Hawaii] score: 40.7, white: 24.6, black:  1.5, mixed: 0.3, expected:  0.7

Most states, especially the ones with large Black populations, have seen tremendous progress over the past 8 years alone.
Mississippi’s score has grown from 0.9 -> 1.6.
Alabama’s has grown from 1.1 -> 1.7.
New York’s has grown from 3.4 -> 5.0.
And California, from 6.7 -> 10.1.

Looking at the nation as a whole, our level of integration has grown from 3.7 -> 5.5. A whopping 49% increase in less than a decade.

We are making tremendous strides every decade, with every new generation. By the end of the 21st century, we may truly find ourselves living in a post-racial world.